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Janet Hapgood


1. Avenant C, Tomasicchio M, Ray RM, Du Toit A, Govender Y, Hunt H, Hapgood JP. Targeting the Glucocorticoid Receptor with Selective Modulators for Prevention against HIV-1 Infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Oct;30 Suppl 1:A207. doi: 10.1089/aid.2014.5447b.abstract. PMID: 25357580 [PubMed - in process]

2. Ray RM, Avenant C, Moliki JM, Hapgood JP. The Contraceptive MPA, Unlike NET, Modulates Expression of Immune Function Genes and Increases HIV-1 Infection in Cervical Tissue Explants and PBMCs. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Oct;30 Suppl 1:A54. doi: 10.1089/aid.2014.5094a.abstract. PMID: 25357882. [PubMed - in process]

3. Louw-du Toit, R., Hapgood, J. P., and Africander, D. (2014) Medroxyprogesterone acetate differentially regulates IL-12 and IL-10 gene expression in a human ectocervical epithelial cell line in a GR-dependent manner. J. Biol. Chem. 289, 31136-31149.

4. Verhoog, N., Allie-Reid, F., Vanden Berghe, W., Smith, C., Haegeman, G., Hapgood, J., and Louw, A. (2014) Inhibition of Corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) gene expression by glucocorticoids involves C/EBP. PLoS ONE 9, e110702,

5. Africander, D. J., Storbeck, K., and Hapgood. J. P. (2014) A comparative study of the androgenic properties of progesterone and the synthetic progestins, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and norethisterone acetate (NET-A). J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 143, 404-415

6. Govender, Y., C. Avenant, Verhoog, N. J. D., Ray, R., Grantham, N., Africander, J. D., and Hapgood, J. P. (2014) The injectable-only contraceptive medroxyprogesterone acetate, unlike norethisterone acetate, suppresses inflammation in endocervical cells by genomic actions via the glucocorticoid receptor. Plos ONE

7. Wehmeyer, L., Du Toit, A., Lang, D. M., and Hapgood, J.P. (2014) Lipid raft- and protein-kinase C-mediated synergism between the glucocorticoid and GnRH receptor signalling pathways results in repression of proliferation via SGK-1 upregulation. J. Biol. Chem. 289, 10235-10251.

8. Hapgood, J. P., Ray, R. M., Govender, Y., Avenant, C., and Tomasicchio, M. (2014) Differential glucocorticoid receptor-mediated effects on immunomodulatory gene expression by progestin contraceptives: implications for HIV-1 pathogenesis. Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. 71, 505-512.

9. Hapgood, J. P., Africander, D., Louw, R., Ray, R. M., and Rohwer J. M. (2013) Potency of progestogens used in hormonal therapy: J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. doi:pii: S0960-0760(13)00144-1. 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2013.08.001

10. Robertson, S., Rohwer, J., Hapgood, J. P., and Louw, A. (2013) Impact of Glucocorticoid Receptor Density on Cooperative Ligand-binding, Ligand-independent Dimerization and Basal Priming of Transactivation: A cell culture model. PLoS ONE. e64831

11. Tomasicchio, M., Avenant, C., Du Toit, A., Ray, R. M., and Hapgood, J.P. (2013) The progestin-only contraceptive medroxyprogesterone acetate, but not norethisterone acetate, enhances HIV-1 Vpr-mediated apoptosis in human CD4+ T cells through the glucocorticoid receptor. PLoS One. 8, e62895

12. Africander, D., Louw, R., and Hapgood, J. P. (2013) Investigating the anti-mineralocorticoid properties of synthetic progestins used in hormone replacement therapy. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 433, 305-310

13. Hapgood, J. P. (2013) Immunosuppressive biological mechanisms support reassessment of use of the injectable contraceptive medroxyprogesterone acetate. Endocrinol. 154, 985-988

14. Robertson, S., Hapgood, J. P., and Louw, A. (2012) Glucocorticoid receptor concentration and the ability to dimerize influence nuclear translocation and distribution. Steroids 78, 182-194

15. Stanczyk, F. Z., Hapgood, J. P., Winer, S., Mishell, D. R. Jr.(2013) Progestogens Used in Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy: Differences in Their Pharmacological Properties, Intracellular Actions, and Clinical Effects. Endocr. Rev. 34, 171-208

16. Africander, D., Louw, R., Verhoog, N., Noeth, D., and Hapgood, J.P. (2011) Differential regulation of endogenous pro-inflammatory cytokine genes by MPA and NET-A in cell lines of the female genital tract. Contraception 84, 423-435

17. Hadley, K., Louw, A., and Hapgood, J. P. (2011) Differential nuclear localisation and promoter occupancy play a role in glucocorticoid receptor ligand-specific transcriptional responses. Steroids 76, 1176-1184

18. Verhoog, N. J. D., Kotitschke, A., Avenant, C., and Hapgood, J. P. (2011) Glucocorticoid-independent repression of TNFa-stimulated IL-6 expression by the glucocorticoid receptor: a potential mechanism for protection against an excessive inflammatory response. J. Biol. Chem. 286, 19297-19310

19. Africander, D., Verhoog, N., and Hapgood, J. P. (2011) Molecular mechanisms of steroid receptor-mediated actions by synthetic progestins used in HRT and contraception. Steroids 76, 636-652

20. Avenant, C., Ronacher, K., Louw, A., and Hapgood, J. (2010) The role of ligand-dependent glucocorticoid receptor phosphorylation and half-life in determination of ligand-specific transcriptional activity. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 327, 72–88

21. Hapgood, J. P., and Tomasicchio, M. (2010) Modulation of HIV-1 virulence via the host glucocorticoid receptor: Towards further understanding of molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 pathogenesis. Arch. Virol. 155, 1009–1019

22. Avenant, C., Kotitschke, A., and Hapgood, J. P. (2010) Glucocorticoid receptor phosphorylation modulates transcription efficacy through GRIP-1 recruitment. Biochemistry 49, 972-985

23. Robertson, S., Allie-Reid, F., Vanden Berghe, W., Binder, A., Africander, D., Vismer, M., Visser, K., DeBosscher, K., Hapgood, J., Haegeman, G., and Louw, A. (2010) Abrogation of glucocorticoid receptor dimerization correlates with dissociated glucocorticoid behaviour of compound A. J. Biol. Chem. 285, 8061–8075

24. Kotitschke, A., Sadie-Van Gijsen, H., Avenant, C., Fernandes, S., and Hapgood, J.P. (2009) Genomic and non-genomic cross talk between the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor and glucocorticoid receptor signalling pathways. Mol. Endocrinol. 23, 1726-1745

25. Ronacher, K., Hadley, K., Avenant, C., Stubsrud, E., Simons, S. S. Jr., Louw, A., and Hapgood, J. P. (2009) Ligand-selective transactivation and transrepression via the glucocorticoid receptor: role of cofactor recruitment. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 299, 219-231

26. Draper, B., Morroni, C., Hoffman, M., Smit, J., Beksinka, M., Hapgood, J., and Van der Merwe, L. (2006) Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate versus Norethisterone oenanthate for long-acting progestagenic contraception. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 19, CD005214

27. De Bosscher, K., Vanden Berghe, W., Beck, I. M. E., Louw, A., Hapgood, J., and Haegeman, G. (2005) A novel plant-derived, fully dissociated compound for the specific repression of NF-?B-driven inflammatory genes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 15827-15832

28. Hapgood, J. P., Sadie, H., van Biljon, W., and Ronacher, K. (2005) Regulation of expression of mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor genes. Invited review. J. Neuroendocrinology. 17, 619-638

29. Koubovec, D., Ronacher, K., Stubsrud, E., Louw, A., and Hapgood, J. P. (2005) Synthetic progestins used in HRT have different glucocorticoid agonist properties. Mol. Cell. Endo. 242, 619-638

30. Hapgood, J.P., Koubovec, D., Louw, A., and Africander, D. (2004) Not all progestins are the same: Implications for usage. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 25, 554-557

31. Koubovec, D., Vanden Berghe, W., Vermeulen, L., Haegeman, G., and Hapgood, J. (2004) Medroxyprogesterone acetate downregulates cytokine gene expression in mouse fibroblast cells. Mol. Cell. Endo. 221, 75-85

32. Sadie, H., Styger, G., and Hapgood, J. (2003) Expression of the mouse gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene in alpha T3-1 gonadotrope cells is stimulated by cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate and protein kinase A, and is modulated by Steroidogenic factor-1 and Nur77. Endocrinol. 144,1958-1971

33. Tanner, T. M., Verrijdt, G., Rombauts, W., Louw, A., Hapgood, J. P., and Claessens, F. (2003) Anti-androgenic properties of compound A, an analogue of a non-steroidal plant compound. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 201, 155-164

34. Van Biljon, W., Wykes, S., Scherer, S., Krawetz, S. A., and Hapgood J. (2002) Type II gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor transcripts in human sperm. Biol. Reprod. 67, 1741-1749

35. Hapgood, J. P., Riedemann, J., and Scherer, S. D. (2001) Regulation of gene expression by GC-rich DNA cis elements. Cell Biol. Int. 25, 17-31

36. Sun, Y. M., Flanagan, C. A., Illing, N., Ott, T. R., Sellar, R., Fromme, B. J., Hapgood, J., Sharp, P., Sealfon S. C., and Millar R. P. (2001) A chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor which confers agonist activity to mammalian antagonists: Identification of D-Lys6 in the ligand and extracellular loop two of the receptor as determinants. J. Biol. Chem. 276, 7754-7761

37. Troskie, B. E., Hapgood, J. P., Millar, R. P., and Illing, N. (2000) Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid cloning, gene expression, and ligand selectivity of a novel gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor expressed in the pituitary and midbrain of Xenopus laevis. Endocrinology 141, 1764-1771

38. Illing, N., Troskie, B. E., Nahorniak, C. S., Hapgood, J. P., Peter, R. E., and Millar, R. P. (1999) Two gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor subtypes with distinct ligand selectivity and differential distribution in brain and pituitary in the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 96, 2526-2531

39. Appel, M., Hampf, M., Mansvelt, L., Hapgood, J., and Bellstedt, D. (1999) Amplification, sequence and expression of the harpen encoding gene of the bacterial canker pathogen Pseudomonas syringea pv. syringea Strain NV. J. Plant Physiol. 154, 489-497

40. Millar, R., Conklin, D., Lofton-Day, C., Hutchinson, E., Troskie, B., Illing, N., Sealfon, S. C., and Hapgood, J. (1999) A novel human GnRH receptor homologue gene: abundant and wide tissue distribution of the antisense transcript. J. Endocrinol. 162, 117-126

41. Myburgh, D. B., Pawson, A. J., Davidson, J. S., Flanagan, C. A., Millar, R. P., and Hapgood, J. P. (1998) A single amino acid substitution in transmembrane helix VI results in overexpression of the human GnRH receptor. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 139, 438-447

42. Troskie, B., Illing, N., Rumback, E., Sun, Y.M., Hapgood, J., Sealfon, S., Conklin, D., and Millar, R. (1998) Identification of three putative receptor subtypes in vertebrates. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 112, 296-302

43. Myburgh, D. B., Millar, R. P., and Hapgood, J. P. (1998) Alanine-261 in intracelular loop III of the Human Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor is crucial for G-protein coupling and receptor internalization. Biochemical J. 331, 893-896

44. Kaye, P. V., Hapgood, J., and Millar, R. P. (1997) Absence of mutations in exon 3 of the GnRH receptor in human gonadotroph adenomas. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) 47, 549-554

45. Davidson, J. S., Aseffa, D., Pawson, A., Davies, P., Hapgood, J., Becker, I., Flanagan, C., Roeske, R., and Millar R. (1997) Irreversible activation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor by photoaffinity cross-linking: localization of attachment site to Cys residue in N-terminal segment. Biochemistry 36, 12881-12889

46. Patterton, H-G., and Hapgood, J. (1996) The translational placement of nucleosome cores in vitro determines the access of the transacting factor suGF1 to DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 4349-4355

47. Davidson, J. S., Flanagan, C. A., Davies, P. D., Hapgood, J., Myburgh, D., Elario, R., Millar, R. P., Forrest-Owen, W., and McArdle, C. A. (1996) Incorporation of an additional glycosylation site enhances expression of functional human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor. Endocrine 4, 207-212

48. Patterton, D., and Hapgood, J. (1994) SuGF1 binds in the major groove of its oligo(dG). oligo(dC)-recognition sequence and is excluded by a positioned nucleosome core. Mol. Cell. Biol. 14, 1410-1418

49. Hapgood, J., and Patterton, D. (1994) Purification of an oligo(dG).oligo(C)-binding sea urchin nuclear protein (suGF1): A family of G-string factors involved in gene regulation during development. Mol. Cell. Biol. 14, 1402-1409

50. Hapgood, J., Cuthill, S., Soderkwist, P., Wilhelmsson, A., Tukey, R. H., Johnson, E. F., Gustafsson, J-A., and Poellinger, L. (1991) Liver cells contain constitutive DNase I hypersensitive sites at the Xenobiotic Response Elements 1 and 2 (XRE1 and - 2) of the rat cytochrome P-450IAI gene and a constitutive, nuclear XRE-binding factor that is distinct from the dioxin receptor. Mol. Cell. Biol. 11, 4314-4323

51. Nemoto, T., Mason, G. G. F., Wilhelmsson A., Cuthill, S., Hapgood, J., Gustafsson, J-Å., and Poellinger, L. (1990) Activation of the dioxin and glucocorticoid receptors to a DNA-binding state under cell-free conditions. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 2269-2277

52. Cuthill, S., Hapgood, J., Denis, M., Wilhelmsson, A., Mason, G. G. F., Nemoto, T., Poellinger, L., and Gustafsson, J-Å. (1989) Ligand-dependent interaction of the dioxin receptor with target DNA-sequences. J. Steroid Biochem. 34, 375-377

53. Hapgood, J. P., Cuthill, S., Denis, M., Poellinger, L., and Gustafsson, J-Å. (1989) Specific protein-DNA interactions at a xenobiotic-responsive element: Copurification of dioxin receptor and DNA-binding activity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 86, 60-64

54. Shephard, E. G., De Beer, F. C., von Holt, C., and Hapgood, J. P. (1988) The use of Sulfosuccinimidyl-2-(p-azidosalicylamido)-1,3'-dithiopropionate as a crosslinking reagent to identify cell surface receptors. Anal. Biochem. 168, 306-313

55. Hapgood, J. P., and von Holt, C. (1987) Steroid-affinity purification of the rat liver glucocorticoid hormone receptor complex. J. Steroid Biochem. 28, 769-777

56. Greyling, H. J., Hapgood, J. P., Sewell, B. T., and von Holt, C. (1986) Covalent labelling of histones with aurothiomalate. Gold-labelled H2A-H2B dimers assemble to octamers, which form crystalline helical tubes. Eur. J. Biochem. 161, 133-138

57. Hapgood, J. P., and von Holt, C. (1986) Transformation in vitro and covalent modification with biotin of steroid-affinity purified rat-liver glucocorticoid-hormone-receptor complex. Eur. J. Biochem. 166, 415-420

58. Hapgood, J. P., Sabbatini, G. P., and von Holt, C. (1986) Rat liver glucocorticoid receptor isolated by affinity chromatography is not a Mg2+- or Ca2+ -dependent protein kinase. Biochemistry. 25, 7529-7534

59. Hapgood, J., Libermann, T. A., Lax, I., Yarden, Y., Schreiber, A. B., Naor, Z. and Schlessinger, J. (1983) .Monoclonal antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor induced prolactin synthesis in cultured rat pituitary cells (GH3). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 80, 6451-6455

60. Irving, H. N. M. H., and Hapgood, J. P. (1980) Coloured liquid anion- exchangers. Analytica Chemica Acta. 119, 207-216